An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents written as part of a research paper, with each
citation is followed by a brief (descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the
reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.
An annotated bibliography is a great tool to help you organize your research. By writing an annotated bibliography, you can keep
track of the sources you have used in your research and the ones you still need to consult. In addition, an annotated bibliography
can provide valuable insights into the arguments of your paper and can help you spot potential flaws in your reasoning. Ultimately,
writing an annotated bibliography will make you a better researcher and writer.
There are two main types of annotated bibliographies:
Descriptive: These provide a summary of the source.
Evaluative: In addition to describing the content and purpose of the source, these also provide a critical assessment of the work.
As a student, you will likely be asked to create an annotated bibliography for your research paper. Here are some tips on how to
1. Start by gathering all of the sources you have used in your research. This includes books, articles, websites, etc. Take note of all
of the citation information for each source (author, title, date, publisher, etc.)
2. For each source, write a short description of what information you found and how you used it in your paper. Be sure to include
both positive and negative aspects of each work.
3. Organize your sources alphabetically by author’s last name. If there is no author listed, use the title of the work instead.
4. Write out each entry in full (rather than using abbreviations). Use hanging indentations so that each entry lines up correctly.
5. Check with your instructor for specific formatting requirements for your annotated bibliography.
Annotations should be indented a half inch from the left margin. Citations should be listed in alphabetical order. Authors’ names
are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven
If more than seven authors are cited for a single work, list the first six authors followed by an ellipsis (). After the ellipsis,
list only the last author’s name. The basic form for each entry in an annotated bibliography is as follows:
1.lee, eunjoo anna . “kimchi.” korea observer 23.4 (1992): 587-592 .
In “Kimchi,” Eunjoo Anna Lee discusses different types of kimchi and provides instructions on how to make each one. This article
would be useful for anyone interested in Korean cuisine or culture.
2. yang, eun-young . “the art of kimchi making.” food culture 14.3 (2010): 32-40 .
Eun-Young Yang’s “The Art of Kimchi Making” provides that the research on food culture is more detailed than this.
There are three parts to an annotated bibliography:
1) The citation: This provides basic information about the source (author, title, etc.) using the chosen citation style (MLA or APA).
2) The annotation: This describes and evaluates the source. Annotations should be concise and clear; they should not exceed one
3) The Works Cited/References page: This lists all of the sources used in the paper in alphabetical order according to the author’s
There are many good topics to write an annotated bibliography on. This includes books, articles, and websites. When choosing a
topic, consider the scope of the assignment and the audience you are writing for.
Some popular topics to write an annotated bibliography on are:
-The Great Gatsby
-To Kill a Mockingbird
-The Catcher in the Rye
-The Grapes of Wrath
-The Scarlet Letter
When you are writing an annotated bibliography, there are a few things that you will want to keep in mind. The first is that you
will want to choose your sources carefully. You will want to make sure that you select sources that are relevant to your topic and
that are reliable.
Once you have selected your sources, you will need to read them carefully and take notes. As you read, identify the main points of
each source and make a note of these. You should also make a note of any interesting or important information that you come
After you have read and taken notes on your sources, it is time to start writing your annotations. For each source, write a brief
summary of the main points covered. You should also include your own thoughts and analysis of the source. Finally, you will want
to provide a citation for the source so that others can easily find it if they wish to read it themselves.
An abstract is a summary of a body of work. An abstract for an annotated bibliography should briefly summarize each source in
order to provide readers with a sense of what will be discussed in the annotations that follow. In addition to summarizing the main
points of each source, the abstract should also explain how the source will be used in relation to the topic of your paper.
Keep in mind that your audience for an annotated bibliography will be other scholars who are familiar with the conventions of
academic writing; therefore, you do not need to explain basic terms or concepts in your abstract. Instead, focus on providing
enough information so that readers can decide whether or not to consult your annotated bibliography for further information on
When writing your abstract, remember to:
– Use third person point of view
– Indicate why each source is relevant to your paper’s topic
– Summarize key points from each source
– Use active voice
– Be concise (usually no more than 250 words)
To create an annotated bibliography, start by finding a source (such as a book, article, or website). Then, create a citation for the
source in MLA format. Finally, write a brief annotation (about 4-6 sentences) that summarizes the key points of the source.
Here is an example of an annotated bibliography entry:
Smith, John. “Annotated Bibliography Example Paper.” The MLA Handbook. 8th ed., 2016, pp. 5-7.
Smith provides an overview of what an annotated bibliography is and how it can be used to help write a research paper. He
includes instructions on how to create citations for sources in MLA format, as well as how to write annotations for each source.
This is a helpful resource for students who are new to writing annotated bibliographies.
Annotations are written in either MLA or APA format. Your instructor will let you know which one to use. Here we will focus on
how to write an annotated bibliography in APA format.
APA format for annotated bibliographies can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th
edition (2010), pp. 210-211 (Chapter 7, Section 3.03).
Annotations usually include the following elements:
1. A citation in proper APA format;
2. A brief description of the content and focus of the source; and
3. An evaluation of the usefulness or applicability of the source for your paper or project.
In some cases, your instructor may also require you to include a summary or paraphrase of the source’s main points in addition to
or instead of an evaluation; check with your instructor if this is required for your assignment
The MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition does not include guidelines for formatting an annotated bibliography. However, your
professor may assign an annotation in MLA style. The following format will be used:
Bibliographic information: This will be the same as a regular MLA Works Cited entry. Formatting instructions are available from
Purdue OWL’s MLA Guide. Be sure to consult your professor’s instructions when formatting your annotations.
Annotation: Begin each annotation with a heading that includes the author’s last name and the page number (if available). Indent
each subsequent line five spaces (or one Tab space). Your annotation should conclude with a period.
The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is most commonly used in history writing, so if you’re doing research in this discipline, you’ll
need to use the CMS citation format.
Here’s how to write an annotation using the Chicago Manual of Style format:
1. Start by listing the full citations for your sources in CMS style. Include all the required elements for each type of source (e.g.,
author names, publication dates, article titles, etc.).
2. After each citation, add a brief paragraph that summarizes and/or critically evaluates the source. Be sure to address the main
ideas and arguments presented in the work, as well as any strengths or weaknesses you identify. Depending on your assignment
requirements, you may also need to address the usefulness or relevance of the source for your research topic.
There are a few things to keep in mind when writing a bibliography in Turabian style:
1. Make sure to include all of the required information for each source. This includes the author’s name, the title of the work, the
date of publication, and the URL or other location where you found the source.
2. Each entry should be formatted according to Turabian style guidelines. This means that each entry should be flush left, with the
second and subsequent lines indented five spaces.
3. Be sure to alphabetize your entries by author’s last name. If you have multiple works by one author, then you can order them by
date of publication, with the most recent work first.
4. Finally, don’t forget to include annotations for each source! These should be brief (one or two sentences) summaries of what you
found most important or interesting about the source.
While you may find it helpful to include quotes in your annotation, keep in mind that an annotated bibliography is more than just a list of quotes from your sources. Your annotation should include a summary and/or evaluation of each source, which might sometimes include direct quotes from the work. However, remember that your goal is to provide a concise overview of each source, so avoid quotation overload by including only the most important or insightful passages.
An annotated biography is a type of biography that features annotations, or comments, about the life and work of the person being biographied. These annotations can be written by the biographer or by other people familiar with the subject’s life and work.
A good writing service should have a few key qualities. First, it should be able to produce high-quality work that meets your expectations. Second, it should have a team of professional and experienced writers who are experts in their field. Third, the company should offer a money-back guarantee in case you are not satisfied with the work. Finally, the company should have positive customer reviews.