These three concepts all roll into Retirement planning. I have a different perspective of planning for my retirement and I feel more empowered with the knowledge of how to make my money grow. I have tools now (PV/FV/Payback period) that will help me with financial decisions which impact my retirement planning goals. Meaning, if I want to buy a new car, payoff my mortgage sooner or consolidate my debts into one payment, I know how to shop around and make a better financial decision. I feel more empowered when I review stocks and bonds and don’t feel so intimidated when I review my 401(k) plan because I have a better understanding of risks, PV and FV, sometimes a small loss today doesn’t mean I can’t have a larger gain tomorrow; even though a dollar today is worth more than a dollar tomorrow ????. I’m more comfortable with taking risks now for a bigger reward in the future. As such, I plan on investing outside of my 401(k) plan next year and the knowledge that I have about Beta will aid me when I start investing.