Develop three hypothetical research approaches for the Problem Statement and the Purpose. Be sure to include a citation from where the approach was obtained. For each approach, briefly describe how the approach would be applied to the Purpose. Finally compare and contrast the three approaches in terms of the advantages of each and disadvantages of each. Support your paper with 3-5 resources. The sources may not be more than 5 years old. Length: 5-7 pages not including title and reference pages. No bullets to take up space. I uploaded a document which includes my problem and purpose. NORTHCENTRAL UNIVERSITY ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Learner: Jarrett E. Walton THIS FORM MUST BE COMPLETELY FILLED IN Please Follow These Procedures: If requested by your mentor, use an assignment cover sheet as the first page of the word processor file. Use “headers” to indicate your course code, assignment number, and your name on each page of the assignment/homework including this assignment cover sheet. . Keep a Photocopy or Electronic Copy Of Your Assignments: You may need to re-submit assignments if your mentor has indicated that you may or must do so. Academic Integrity: All work submitted in each course must be the Learner’s own. This includes all assignments, exams, term papers, and other projects required by the faculty mentor. The knowing submission of another persons work represented as that of the Learner’s without properly citing the source of the work will be considered plagiarism and will result in an unsatisfactory grade for the work submitted or for the entire course, and may result in academic dismissal. BTM8102 Research topic, problem, purpose, and questions Activity 8: Topic paper. Learner Comments: Attached is assignment number 4. Faculty Use Only Exploring Reasons for Employee Turnover: A Case Study of Managers in Retail in Atlanta, Georgia Topic Paper Submitted to Northcentral University Graduate Faculty of the School of Business and Technology Management in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY by JARRETT EUGENE WALTON Prescott Valley, Arizona June 2014 Table of Contents Proposed Topic………………………………………………………….……………….. 1 Introduction 1 Abridged Literature Review 1 Problem Statement 4 Purpose Statement 4 Research Questions 5 Summary 6 References 7 Exploring Reasons for Turnover: A Case Study of Managers in Retail in Atlanta, Georgia Introduction According to Nicholson (2012), the field of retailing may be particularly vulnerable to high turnover due to work-family conflict associated with conditions endemic to the retail field, notably long hours (including nights, weekends, and holidays), relatively low entry-level pay, and frequent expectations to relocate. Turnover, traditionally… seen to be either voluntary (when the organization elects to separate the employee) or involuntary, adds additional cost and loss of revenue when an employee separates from the company (Fenwick, Avery, & Bergsteiner, 2011). Employee turnover has been recognized as a serious problem for many companies. This particular concern has received an increasing amount of attention in recent years. Because of this, increased attention has been given to studies that provide insight to techniques that reduce turnover. Several studies have been conducted in the area of turnover in the Retail Industry (Bergiel, Nguyen, Clenney, & Taylor, 2009 and Levin, 2007). The findings corroborate that there are lower costs associated with retaining the same employees versus finding new ones (Scott, 2009). Furthermore, the studies indicate that there are more costs and adverse impacts associated with employee turnover (Fenwick, Avery, & Bergsteiner, 2011). Some of the costs include recruitment, new hire training, and orientation. An adverse impact is a loss in productivity where the new employee is not as efficient as their more tenured counterpart. In an effort to try and decrease costs and turnover rates, employers on an ongoing basis try to determine the reasons that employees leave the organization. For an example, exit interviews and employee surveys are two tools that can aide an organization in their recruitment and retention efforts (Johnston & Spinks, 2013). In an effort to stabilize turnover, HR has three things that it can do to identify the real reasons for turnover: diagnose, address, and define (Faragher, 2008). HR practitioners presume that people leave because of lack of promotion opportunities (61%), inadequate pay (49%) and poor relationship with manager (26%) (Eldridge, 2008). Turnover was found to be impacted by such factors as work- life balance, pay, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. There have been many studies that have been conducted in the past that have examined various factors as a determinant to predict turnover. Specifically, the focus of these studies has been primarily on how these factors influence turnover. These studies have many things. Turnover adds additional cost and loss of revenue when an employee separates from the company (Johnston & Spinks, 2013). Also, there are less costs associated with retaining the same employees versus finding new ones (Scott, 2009). Moreover, that there are more costs and adverse impacts associated with employee turnover (Amundson, Borgen, Iaquinta, Butterfield, & Koert, 2010). Research shows that variables such as work- life balance, pay, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment have an impact on turnover (Krug, 2006). These variables have previously been studied in various areas including retail, but not specifically for front-end employees (Krug, 2006). The focus of this qualitative study is to survey managers that work in varying retail organizations of Atlanta, Georgia regarding the relationship between the independent variables (work- life balance, pay, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment) and the impact that leadership style has on turnover for front-end employees in the retail industry. In recent years, organizations have developed several initiatives that are focused on providing high levels of customer service. In order to provide these services as efficiently and effectively as possible, it would benefit both the organization and its customers if as many employees as possible are retained. This would mean that fewer employees would have to be acclimated to the customer service standards that the company has set forth. Survival in today’s economic climate and competitive retail environment requires more than just low prices and innovative products. To compete effectively, businesses must focus on the customer’s shopping experience. Turnover has been researched on many occasions (Krug, 2006 and Eldridge, 2008). Moreover, many practitioners have made recommendations, yet turnover still continues to be an ongoing challenge in many retail organizations. In addition, there have been very few studies that have been conducted that focused on retail organizations, and even less have been focused solely on front-end hourly associates. It appears that the current recommendations are not addressing how to retain hourly level front-end associates. Hence, new models need to be introduced that will address the ongoing challenge. Abridged Literature Review [Text…] Problem Statement Traditionally, employees in the retail industry have been known to have higher turnover than other industries. Some retailers have experienced turnover in excess of one hundred percent. Turnover, whether voluntary or involuntary, adds additional cost and loss of revenue when an employee separates from the company. Traditionally, employee turnover studies in the USA have focused on three variables - individual satisfaction, commitment, and turnover intention. These variables have been the most influential predictors of turnover and meta-analyses have confirmed the widely accepted findings (Siddiqi, 2013). There is a need to identify factors that impact retail hourly turnover on front-end departments of retail organizations in Atlanta, Georgia. In the retail industry, many factors are suspected to contribute to the reason people leave organizations. Because the factors are so varied, trends need to be identified that can be consistent to the retail industry. Moreover, there is an opportunity that exists to identify why turnover occurs among retail hourly level associates. It will be identified if management style or leadership has an impact on turnover intent in the retail industry. The true cause will be determined from survey of employees regarding the reason for turnover. Once the reasons are identified, then organizations can begin to explore if improving these factors can lower the turnover rate in retail organizations. It has been determined that front-end departments have the greatest opportunity to impact customer shopping experience. This is the area that will be examined. This study will target the retail industry and specifically front-end hourly associates in a major metropolitan area. Purpose Statement There have been many studies that have been conducted in the past that have examined various factors as a determinant to predict turnover. Specifically, the focus of these studies has been primarily on how these factors impact turnover. These studies have concluded many things. Turnover adds additional cost and loss of revenue when an employee separates from the company (Johnston & Spinks, 2013). Also, there are less costs associated with retaining the same employees versus finding new ones (Scott, 2009). Moreover, that there are more costs and adverse impacts associated with employee turnover (Amundson, Borgen, Iaquinta, Butterfield, & Koert, 2010). Research shows that variables such as work- life balance, pay, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment have an impact on turnover. These variables have previously been studied in various areas including retail, but not specifically for front-end employees. The purpose of this qualitative study is to survey managers that work in varying retail organizations of Atlanta, Georgia regarding the relationship between the independent variables (work- life balance, pay, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment) and the impact that leadership style has on turnover for front-end employees in the retail industry. This study will include a survey of 10 managers in multiple retail organizations in Atlanta, Georgia on the reasons front end employees turnover from retail organizations. A cross sector of managers is being surveyed to identify trends that are consistent amongst the organizations. Each of the managers is a part of the same professional association. As a result, each manager has accessibility to participate in taking the survey without having a barrier. Moreover, this study will identify best practices to prevent turnover from occurring among retail hourly level associates. The cause will be determined from survey of employees regarding the reason for turnover. In addition, the relationship leadership style and motivational factors have on turnover will be determined. Furthermore, it will be determined if management style has an impact on turnover intent. Research Questions [Text…] Q1. Q2. Summary [Text…] References Amundson, N. E., Borgen, W. A., Iaquinta, M., Butterfield, L. D., & Koert, E. (2010). Career decisions from the decider's perspective. The Career Development Quarterly, 58(4), 336. Eldridge, R. (2008, February). Conduct a proper analysis of exit data to find out why employees rally leave. People Management, 14(4), 70. Erich B. Bergiel, Vinh Q. Nguyen, Beth F. Clenney, & G. Stephen Taylor. (2009). Human resource practices, job embeddedness and intention to quit. Management Research News, 32(3), 205-219. Faragher, J.. (2008, January). Why staff really leave. Personnel Today,22-23. Fenwick, F. J., Avery, G. C., & Bergsteiner, H. (2011). Organizational climate and performance in retail pharmacies.Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(3), 224-242. Greg Levin. (2007, January). Are exit interviews a way out of turnover hell? -- Exit interviews are a way to identify consistent trends, patterns and themes and to reduce future turnover on a large scale. Call Center Magazine, 20(1), 34-37. Johnston, N., & Spinks, W. (2013). Organisational climate and employee turnover intention within a franchise system. The Journal of New Business Ideas & Trends, 11(1), 20-41. Krug, J. A. (2006). Turnover from the employee’s perspective: The involuntary-voluntary taxonomy. Current topics in management, 11, 137–154. Nicholas, K. (2012). The push and pull of innovation: A start-up case study. Journal of Case Research in Business and Economics, 4, 1-12. Scott A. (2009). Salesperson Agency and Turnover: A Research Proposal for Naturalistic Exploration of Organizational Commitment, Job Involvement, and Identity. Journal of Global Business Issues, 3(2), 9-15. Siddiqi, M. A. (2013). Examining work engagement as a precursor to turnover intentions of service employees. International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 5(4), 118-132.