There is a federal law against hate crimes (also known as bias crimes), which are defined as crimes in which the perpetrator is motivated by how he or she feels about certain kinds of people who belong to a category protected by the law. The federal law was passed in 1969, and a number of states have also passed similar laws. In most cases, the protected categories include race, religion, gender, disability, and sexual orientation, with this latter category having been added more recently. In addition to specifying what groups are protected by these laws, most of them also include enhanced penalties that are required when the law is violated. This means that the penalties are harsher not because a specific crime was committed, but because the crime was inflicted on someone protected by the hate crime law.
You may find the following resource helpful. It is an interactive map of the United States, and you can click on any state for information about that state’s hate crimes law(s).